N Engl J Med. However, it is possible that those reporting perceived healthcare-specific racial discrimination may be receiving care in episodic settings such as emergency rooms and urgent care, where there is less continuity and possibly a higher likelihood for individuals to perceive discrimination Despite these potential limitations, this paper provides data on perceived healthcare-specific racial discrimination among Black MSM, a topic lacking extensive investigation in a community significantly impacted by HIV disease burden. However, the inclusion of family and friends provides further information on perceptions of racial discrimination among those within their familial and social networks. Racial and sex differences in emergency department triage assessment and test ordering for chest pain, In particular, much of the previous research in this area has not focused on at risk HIV seronegative Black MSM and uses divergent measures of perceived healthcare-specific racial discrimination with general discrimination serving as a proxy at times and healthcare utilization e. Race and sexual identity: The association of optimism and perceived discrimination with health care utilization in adults with sickle cell disease. J Gen Intern Med.
Racial and sex differences in emergency department triage assessment and test ordering for chest pain, J Epidemiol Community Health. J Pers Soc Psychol. In this study, healthcare utilization was found to be positively associated with insurance coverage and older age, as might be expected. Perceived race-based and socioeconomic status SES -based discrimination in interactions with health care providers. In our study, we found HIV testing to be positively associated with reported healthcare-specific racial discrimination. Race and sexual identity: Modeling the impact of social discrimination and financial hardship on the sexual risk of HIV among Latino and Black men who have sex with men. Perceived discrimination, socioeconomic disadvantage and refraining from seeking medical treatment in Sweden. It is possible that older and more educated individuals might feel more comfortable expressing their perception of discrimination in the healthcare setting. Racial and ethnic differences in patient perceptions of bias and cultural competence in health care. However, it is possible that those reporting perceived healthcare-specific racial discrimination may be receiving care in episodic settings such as emergency rooms and urgent care, where there is less continuity and possibly a higher likelihood for individuals to perceive discrimination Healthy People [August 27, ]; Available at: However, unlike most prior literature, we found a positive association between healthcare utilization and perceived healthcare-specific racial discrimination 20 , 26 , 27 , Am J Public Health. Another recent study noted that Black heterosexual men reporting high levels of perceived discrimination had less sexual risk when they had higher levels of social support, highlighting that perceived discrimination can be mitigated by other factors J Gen Intern Med. J Natl Med Assoc. These data suggest that a multiplicity of structural related factors e. Intersectionality, low-income Black heterosexual men, and implications for HIV prevention research and interventions. A recent article showed that Black sickle cell disease patients who reported high perceived discrimination and high optimism had greater healthcare utilization than patients that reported either low perceived discrimination or low optimism Others have reported that perceived healthcare-specific racial discrimination may have a role in the development of cultural mistrust of the provider and the medical system, as well as the appropriateness of care provided to patients, which reflects an area of concern for Black MSM Methods for the scientific study of discrimination and health: Harlem Moon Press; New York: It is also possible that the intersection of racial, sexual, and socioeconomic discrimination combine to impact healthcare utilization and HIV testing in Black MSM
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