Journal of Sexual Aggression ELIN The Journal of Sexual Aggression provides an international and interdisciplinary forum for the dissemination of research findings and the development of theory, policy and practice regarding sexual aggression in all its forms. Furthermore, the empirical evidence suggests that regarding their relations to in-group bias, personal and social self-esteem do not differ in fact, the evidence appears to slightly favor the use of personal self-esteem scales; for a meta-analysis, see [ 55 ]. Based on prior results, one could have expected that discrimination would be more strongly related to elevated self-esteem in the absence of an impartial or fair option in-group bias could violate the fairness considerations made salient by such an option and thereby depress self-esteem [ 27 ]. Indeed, the ethic of mutual obligation inherent in the employer-employee relationship has been described as a gift exchange game: Therefore, perhaps even more important than the theoretical contributions of the present research is that we provide novel data on the impact of the self-esteem hypothesis in a real-world context in which discrimination is known to occur.
In drafting papers authors should consider the readability of their paper for readers outside of their discipline. Consistent with this line of research, our results revealed that making decisions which affect economic outcomes has implications for the self-esteem of the decision-makers. Ecological Validity The vast majority of the research conducted with natural groups has relied on asking participants to provide questionnaire ratings of the out-group e. Tweet International Journal of Gender and Women's Studies is an interdisciplinary international journal which publishes articles relating to gender and sex from a feminist perspective covering a wide range of subject areas including the social and natural sciences, the arts, the humanities and popular culture. For more than three decades, Perspectives has offered unique insights into how reproductive health issues relate to one another; how they are affected by policies and programs; and their implications for individuals and societies. The small sample sizes were more generally a limitation of the present research, because they did not allow us to investigate the possible effect of the out-group in ethnicity-based discrimination e. The vigilant search for the exact conditions under which discrimination is related to self-esteem has arguably identified so stringent boundary conditions for the phenomenon that critiques may be fully justified to ask whether the phenomenon exists at all [ 29 ]. But is even the dictator-like allocation of points akin to real-world behavior? Regarding wages, none of the variables predicted a change in self-esteem see Model 3 in Table 4. In light of our results, the pursuit of self-esteem could provide a plausible psychological mechanism for explaining some of the distinct behaviors towards in- and out-group members that have been observed in various types of economic situations. The effect sizes were generally somewhat stronger for ethnicity-based discrimination, and sex-based discrimination was not associated with the maintenance of self-esteem when ethnicity-based discrimination was controlled for. Conceptual issues regarding addiction, compulsivity, and sexual medicine will be explored as new research emerges, as well as the underlining challenges in public policy and prevention, and criteria for diagnosis and reimbursement. Our results can be considered surprisingly supportive of the self-esteem hypothesis. Based on prior results, one could have expected that discrimination would be more strongly related to elevated self-esteem in the absence of an impartial or fair option in-group bias could violate the fairness considerations made salient by such an option and thereby depress self-esteem [ 27 ]. Implications for the Self-Esteem Hypothesis Zanna and Fazio [ 41 ] suggested a standard sequence to social psychological research literatures: Although there is a vast amount of research that verifies the existence of discrimination towards low-status groups, most of that research has focused on demographic properties of the applicant. Instead of the social state self-esteem scale, we therefore opted for a personal state self-esteem scale. But even members of prototypical groups, such as white middle-class males, are likely to experience stereotype threat under some circumstances. Bertrand M, Mullainathan S. We thus believe that the same psychological mechanism that caused discrimination in the present study is at least to some extent also responsible for it in real employer-applicant relationships. Those who did not favor their own ethnicity experienced a drop in self-esteem: An important concession that we made in order to increase ecological validity was to make several dimensions of categorization ethnicity, sex, competence relevant to the participants. Rather, the self-esteem hypothesis should be tested using measures of state self-esteem, because these assess the continually updated here-and-now experience of self-worth. The results of Branscombe and Wann [ 21 ] suggest that stereotype threat could be relevant in this respect; specifically, they showed that discrimination functions to restore decreased self-esteem after stereotype threat. JMF publishes original theory and research using the variety of methods reflective of the full range of social sciences, including quantitative, qualitative, and multimethod designs. As another point of concern, our self-esteem scale is open to the same criticism as all other Likert scales.
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