But the word "volunteer" also carries a taint. The few women who performed music professionally in these early years were mostly singers of opera and oratorio and, as Adrienne Fried Block has observed, often came from "a musical or theatrical family. Newspaper Publishing plc, London In the hope of shaping a coherent book, we the two editors, speaking for ourselves for the next while, rather than for all contributors to the book made three early decisions to help delimit this vast subject, all apparent in the book's title and subtitle: Male patrons clearly deserve further study: But each amply deserves the scholarly attention that she receives here. The terms "art music" and Some of the material written by Ralph P. If performers were given their rightful place in the history of music, it could easily be shown that [Maria] Callas exerted a far greater influence on the course of opera in the past forty years than any composer did.
The book's conclusion Chapter 10 is devoted to a more thoroughgoing and frankly personal discussion, by one of the editors, of certain issues broached earlier, especially in the present Introduction and in Chapters 1, 2, 5, and 9. In the first place, what philosophers might call the "idealist" conception of the work of art leads us to focus primarily on a small number of canonical masterpieces, to view them as, in some degree, transcendent, and to isolate them from the material—human and societal—contexts in which they were and are produced and diffused. Despite the early efforts of Jeannette Thurber and others to change federal policy, direct aid was not a politically acceptable option until the creation of the—relatively modest, by European standards—National Endowment for the Arts under the Johnson administration in Might not feminist musicology profitably shift the focus away from a male-controlled cultural product to a female-centered cultural process, and celebrate these areas of real feminine dominance? One s precedent for the NEA, though, should be mentioned. But we have tried to let their own voices be heard more or less unmediated at various points in the chapters and, of course, in the vignettes, always remembering, though, that, as Carolyn G. Toward a Typology of Music Patronage Women's organizational activities in music in the United States, as is becoming clear, are too extensive and varied to be easily encapsulated in simple generalizations, much less in jokes and stereotypes. Today, women and men alike are faced with the challenge of balancing these competing ideals of economic interdependence and independence, resisting or accepting colluding in? Bergonzi, Bernard, Clarendon Press, Oxford Foremost of the shapers [of America's musical life] have been the musicians themselves, who have worked as individuals in a commercial environment seeking to satisfy the needs of various social groups—for artistic expression, worship, instruction, entertainment, or participatory recreation. Baroque-era musicians, in their dedicatory prefaces, often placed the patron just above the creative artist and just below Orpheus and the muses. When two or more vignettes are grouped together, the second or later ones serve as "further cases," often introducing patrons whose work illustrates some aspect not otherwise discussed, or treated only briefly, elsewhere in the book. Coolidge is, of course, safely dead, and in any case, she was clearly a "musical woman," since she played the piano before audiences and took her composing seriously. After all, the band, orchestra, Orff-instrument, chorus, and musical-theater programs that these teachers lead provide many Americans with a rare opportunity to be involved in as children and to witness as parents "live," participatory music making. Locke and Cyrilla Barr The various authors of the present collective work would most likely cheer the insightful agenda that the composer and critic David Schiff proposed in the New Republic just as we were all finishing our chapters. Ellen Martin Henrotin, one of the group's prime movers, addressed the first gathering of these Chicago ladies in terms that left no doubt as to the implications of the club movement for the members themselves: The latest pieces were shipped over, hot off the press, along with Irish linens, Scotch whiskey, French perfumes, and the latest installments of Dickens's novels. Amnesty International, London It also helpfully suggests a link between women's work on behalf of music, on the one hand, and volunteer work in other areas, including what is sometimes called "social feminism": Here the explanation may be that the woman patron does not match certain current feminist ideals, based as they are on the laudable goal of achieving public recognition and financial and professional parity with men. Women were a big part of this increase: The formation of such a club as this should be a very serious matter, for the mere fact of being a member of it may influence the term of your whole life. The same can be said of patronage of the other arts, especially modern art and dance. Opera, in particular, has gained a major and often sophisticated "second" audience in the past ten years; thanks to electronic video whether in the movie theater or on television, videotape, or video disc , opera lovers, even in isolated locations, can "attend" performances of once little-known operas such as Verdi's Stiffelio , experience the dark power of Wagner's Ring cycle or Britten's Peter Grimes , and be devastated by the artistry of Teresa Stratas, Julia Migenes, or—in a gripping black-and-white video of Tosca , act 2—Maria Callas. List of works excerpted Previous: The prejudices against women musicians in Western art music knew no borders. Craig, David, Carcanet Press, Manchester ,
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