Find articles by Jeffrey S. He rejects the common belief that his subjects are "monsters" with nothing in common with the more "normal" among us. Exposure to testosterone or estradiol masculinizes and defeminizes aspects of brain morphology and results in sex-specific behaviors reviewed in [ 18 ]. We have selected these three particular behaviors, because there are a sufficient number of mouse studies from which to draw information. The current study was designed to evaluate the effect of pain on sexual behavior in male and female mice. Many reports of phenotypic effects of gene knockouts have been based on work done in mice from mixed genetic backgrounds. While experiments similar to these have yet to be conducted in normal mice, a discussion of similar work in KO mice follows. Thus, in mice, estrogens may be involved in the development of female olfactory circuits.
The VMH has been characterized for a number of sexual dimorphisms [ 78 ], and, with regard to sex differences in nNOS, it provides the additional complication of potential strain differences within both rats and mice. It is clear that similar studies conducted in different rat or mouse strains may have different outcomes, and we need to be cautious about general conclusions based on only one or two strains. Developmental expression of calbindin in the POA differs between the two species, and the development of sexual dimorphism in this nucleus is dependent upon different hormones. Moreover, these results strengthen the argument that sex differences within the accessory olfactory pathway may be responsible for behavioral sex differences in mice. In mice, it is clear that the pattern of calbindin immunoreactivity is gonad dependent, as the arrangement, but not the total number, of these cells is altered when the steroidogenic factor-1 gene SF-1 is disrupted [ 37 ]. A Forensic Psychiatrist Illuminates the Darker Side of Human Behavior is that rare title that is both essential reading for the mental health professional and accessible in style and content to the fascinated lay reader. F-PM and M-OF testing lasted 60 min, based on pilot experiments showing that this duration captured the vast majority of mouse mating behavior, with most mice initiating sexual contact 10—20 min into testing. In addition, it is not clear that these mice represent a complete neural knockout of AR, since astrocytes [ ] also express AR in rat brain, finally it is also possible that the presence or absence of AR in non-neural tissues causes behavioral changes. The present volume explores another natural interface of developmental psy chobiology; behavioral ecology. The book also covers rehabilitation techniques such as brain scanning, brain-based therapy for adolescents, and compassion-focused therapy. Neonatal ATD treatment did not affect male preferences for females, suggesting that the critical period for male partner preference does not coincide with that of masculine sexual behavior. These findings suggest that both olfactory systems regulate preference for male urine in female mice, while in male mice the VNO is not required for sex discrimination. The critical period in mice has not been separately determined, but, in contrast to rats, it appears that both estrogens and androgens organize partner preference behaviors. In behavioral neuroendocrinology, the goal is to establish both structural similarities and differences in the brain, and to relate these to function. If we are concerned with the developmental process of sexual differentiation, and are examining endpoints at or shortly after birth, the fact that the targeted genes are not functional during development helps in determining the developmental function of the knocked out gene. Pain-induced reductions in female sexual behavior were observed in the absence of sex differences in pain-related behavior, and could be rescued by the analgesic, pregabalin, and the libido-enhancing drugs, apomorphine and melanotan-II. A few caveats need to be made as we describe and interpret the data within this review. Moving forward, investigators must answer fundamental questions about their chosen organism, and attend to both species and strain differences as they select the optimal animal models for their research questions. Tfm male rats had partner preferences similar to WT males when choosing between an estrus and a non-estrus female [ 82 ], but there are no data on Fos responses from these experiments. Respected scholars clearly present evidence that shows the extensive nature of homoeroticism and homosexuality in the Classical world. Male rodents develop conditioned place preferences CPP for compartments paired with copulation and postejaculatory satiety, whereas female rodents only develop CPP in specific contexts, when they are allowed to selectively pace i. In addition, for specific behaviors, some strains are more useful than others. However, a role for androgen signaling has not been completely ruled out. Finally, much of the mouse data has been generated with gene-disrupted, KD, or knockout KO models. Topics include Greek pederasty and its origins, the Greek female homoeroticism of Sappho, homosexuality in Greek and Roman art and literature, and the emergence of the gay liberation movement with the influence of discussions of Greek and Roman homosexuality in the twentieth century. However, in adulthood the sex difference is related to the position of calbindin immunoreactive cells in males compared to female, and not to the total number of calbindin immunopositive cells in this region [ 37 ]. No clinical data exist on the direct impact of pain on sexual motivation, yet high prevalence of reduced sexual desire in chronic pain populations Basson et al.
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