Strong evidence suggests that comprehensive approaches to sex education help young people to delay sex and also to have healthy, responsible and mutually protective relationships when they do become sexually active. Sometimes must adhere to the 8-point federal definition Table 3. First, important inequities have emerged, the most significant of which are greater declines among girls than boys, rural-urban disparities, declines concentrated among white girls, and low rates among poor adolescents. AOUM was funded within a variety of domestic and foreign aid programs, with 49 of 50 states accepting federal funds to promote AOUM in the classroom [ 7 , 8 ]. Who supports comprehensive sexuality education?
At the same time, the Trump Administration announced the availability of new funding for the TPP program with updated guidelines. This marks a sharp departure from the rules under the Obama administration, which allowed grantees to choose from a list of 44 evidence-supported programs that vary by approach, target population, setting, length, and intended outcomes. A Global Review, Paris: Since then, rigorous research has documented both the lack of efficacy of AOUM in delaying sexual initiation, reducing sexual risk behaviors, or improving reproductive health outcomes and the effectiveness of comprehensive sex education in increasing condom and contraceptive use and decreasing pregnancy rates [ 7 — 12 ]. Most generally, these programs include medically accurate, evidence-based information about both contraception and abstinence, as well as condoms to prevent STI transmission. The most exciting studies have found programs with rights-based content, positive, youth-centered messages, and use of interactive, participatory learning and skill building are effective in empowering adolescents with the knowledge and tools required for healthy sexual decision-making and behaviors [ 4 , 11 — 14 , 27 — 29 ]. Other programs emphasize safe-sex practices and often include information about healthy relationships and lifestyles. This fact sheet reviews the types of sex education models and state policies surrounding them, the major sources of federal funding for both abstinence and safer sex education, and summarizes the research on impact of these programs on teen sexual behavior. Santelli J et al. Paradoxically, the declines in formal sex education from to have coincided with sizeable declines in adolescent birth rates and improved rates of contraceptive method use in the United States from to [ 20 , 21 ]. Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health. Federally funded programs play a key role in guiding the standards and curricula developed and funded at the state and local levels—fundamentally shaping the definition and scope of sex education nationwide. The Future of Sex Education Given the insufficient state of sex education in the United States in , existing gaps are opportunities for more ambitious, forward-thinking strategies that cross-cut levels to translate an expanded evidence base into best practices and policies. State Laws and Policies, as of May 1, States that accept Title V grant money must match every four federal dollars with three state dollars, and they distribute these funds through health departments to schools and community organizations. Ehrlich G, Pitting abstinence vs. Department of Health and Human Services; Information about contraceptives and condoms may not be provided unless to emphasize failure rates. Now, with social conservatives in Congress emboldened by the elections and a new federal administration that includes proponents of abstinence-only-until-marriage programs, we are again at a crossroads when it comes to federal support for sex education. Abstinence and abstinence-only education: Percent of Schools in Which Teachers Taught Specific Topics as Part of Required Instruction Conclusion The Trump administration continues to shift the focus towards abstinence-only education, revamping the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program and increasing federal funding for sexual risk avoidance programs. A framework-based content analysis. Patterns and correlates of parental and formal sexual and reproductive health communication for adolescent women in the United States, — Congress and the Trump administration are facing a significant choice: Only 24 states and DC require that sex education be taught in schools Text Box 1. Understanding sexual health and its role in more effective prevention programs. Instead, the evaluated programs differed from traditional abstinence-only programs in three major ways:
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